Publications - Colin A HIGGINS

Journal Articles and Book Chapters

section under revision

26. AbdelRaouf, Ashraf, Higgins, Colin, Pridmore, Tony & Khalil, Mahmou. Building a multi-modal Arabic corpus (MMAC). International Journal on Document Analysis and Recognition. Springer Berlin / Heidelberg. Issn: 1433-2833. Volume 13/4. pp 285-302, 2010-12-01. Url: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10032-010-0128-2. Doi: 10.1007/s10032-010-0128-2

25. Colin A. Higgins, Brett Bligh, Pavlos Symeonidis, Athanasios Tsintsifas. Authoring diagram-based CBA with CourseMarker. Computers & Education (2009., doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2008.11.019

24. Ashraf AbdelRaouf, Colin A Higgins and Mahmoud Khalil. A Database for Arabic Printed Character Recognition. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Image Analysis and Recognition, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg ISSN 0302-9743 (Print) 1611-3349 (Online). Volume 5112/2008, ISBN 978-3-540-69811-1, DOI 10.1007/978-3-540-69812-8_56 pp 567-578 June 25, 2008.

23. Yang, M., Leedham, G., Higgins, C. and Htwe, S. M. Segmentation and recognition of phonetic features in handwritten Pitman shorthand. Pattern Recognition [online], Elsevier. doi:10.1016/j.patcog.2007.10.014 [18 Oct 2007].

22. Marzieh Ahmadzadeh, Dave Elliman, Colin Higgins. The impact of improving debugging skill on programming ability. Italics: Special Edition on Innovative Methods Of Teaching Programming. Volume 6 Issue 4, October 2007. ISSN: 1473-7507.

21. Nasiroh Omar, Colin Higgins, Colin Harrison and Diego Campo Millan.Internet Research Support System: An Application for Immediate Feedback in Authentic Internet Research. Journal of Computers, Vol. 2, No. 7, pp 68-74, September 2007.

20. G.R. Gray, C.A. Higgins. An introspective approach to marking graphical user interfaces. SIGCSE bulletin [0097-8418] 2006 vol:38 iss:3 pg:43.

19. Harrison, C., Omar, N. and Higgins, C. Postmodern principles for responsive reading assessment: a case study of a complex online reading task. In M. Sainsbury, C. Harrison and A. Watts (Eds.) Reading assessment: from theories to classrooms. Slough: National Foundation for Educational Research, 2006, pp140-157. [book chapter]

18. Peter Brusilovsky and Colin Higgins. Preface to the special issue on automated assessment of programming assignments. ACM Journal on Educational Resources in Computing (JERIC), vol 5, issue 3, Sept 2005, ISSN 1531-4278. [Journal editorial]

17. Colin Higgins, Geoffrey Gray, Pavlos Symeonidis and Athanasios Tsintsifas. Automated Assessment and Experiences of Teaching Programming. ACM Journal on Educational Resources in Computing (JERIC), vol 5, issue 3, Sept 2005, ISSN 1531-4278. [Refereed journal article, 27 pages]

16. Ma Yang, Graham Leedham, Colin Higgins and  Swe Myo Htwe, Segmentation and Recognition of Phonetic Features In Handwritten Pitman shorthand.  Pattern Recognition.  [Abstract, refereed journal article accepted Dec 2004, 35 pages]

15. S. Al-Ma’adeed, D Elliman, C Higgins.  A Data-Base for Arabic Handwritten Text Recognition Research.   The International Arab Journal of Information Technology (IAJIT), vol. 1, no. 1, January 2004, pp118-123. ISSN 1683-3198.  [Abstract]

14. Somaya Al-Ma’adeed, Colin Higgins, and Dave Elliman. Recognition of Off-Line Handwritten Arabic Words Using Multiple Hidden Marcov Model.  International Journal of Knowledge Based Systems, vol.17 No.2 pp 75-79, 2003.  [Refereed journal article, 5 pages]

13. Higgins, Hegazy, Symeonidis, Tsintsifas.  The CourseMaster CBA System: Improvements over Ceilidh.  Journal of Education and Information Technologies, Vol 8, No 3, pp287-304, Kluwer ISSN 1360-2357, September 2003.  [Abstract]

12. C.A. Higgins, F.Z. Mansouri.  PRAM: A Courseware System for the Automatic Assessment of AI Programs.  Invited paper - Innovative Teaching and Learning : Knowledge-Based Paradigms (Studies in Fuzziness and Soft Computing vol. 36).  Springer-Verlag ISBN 3-7908-1246-3.  2000.  [Chapter in Edited/Refereed Book, 18 pages]

11. G Hutton, M Cripps, D G Elliman, C A Higgins. The Designer's Apprentice - An Electronic Drawing Board.  Artificial Intelligence for Engineering Design, Analysis and Manufacturing, 1997.  [Refereed journal article]

10. F Z Mansouri and C A Higgins, Prolog: An annotated bibliography, SIGPLAN Notices, Vol 32, No 9, September. 1997.  [Refereed journal]

9. Gibbon, Cleveland A. and Higgins, Colin A. Teaching Object-Oriented Design with Heuristics. SIGPlan Notices, Vol. 31, No.7, pp.12-16, July 1996.  [Refereed journal]

8. Steve Benford, Edmund Burke, Eric Foxley, Neil Gutteridge, Colin Higgins, Abdullah Mohd Zin, Software Support for Automated Assessment and Administration, The Journal of Research on Computing in Education.  [Refereed journal]

7. C. A. Higgins and P. E. Bramall. On-line handwriting recognition based on the human reading process.  Advances in handwriting and drawing. A Multidisciplinary approach. World Scientific, 1995.  [Chapter in Edited/Refereed Book]

6. Steve Benford, Edmund Burke, Eric Foxley, Colin Higgins, Abdullah Mohd Zin. Software Support for the Automated Assessment and Administration of Computer Programming Courses (in Russian). The East West Journal on Computers in Education. 1994 vol. 1, No 1, pages 57-68.  [Refereed journal]

5. M. I. Heard, P. M. Mather and C. A. Higgins. GERES: a prototype expert system for the geometric rectification of remotely-sensed images. Int. J. Remote Sensing, vol. 13, no. 17, 1992.  [Refereed journal]

4. C. A. Higgins and D. M. Ford. A new segmentation method for cursive script recognition. From Pixels to Features III. North-Holland, 1992.  [Chapter in Edited/Refereed Book]

3. C. A. Higgins and D. M. Ford. Pen-based Book Computers. Information Services & Use, no. 11 pp 179-192, Sept 1991.  [Refereed journal]

2. C. A. Higgins and R. J. Duckworth. The PAD (Pen and Display) – a Demonstrator for the Electronic Paper Project. Computer Processing of Handwriting. World Scientific, 1990.  [Chapter in Edited/Refereed Book]

1. D. M. Ford and C. A. Higgins. A Tree-Based Dictionary Search Technique and Comparison with N-Gram Letter Graph Reduction. Computer Processing of Handwriting. World Scientific, 1990. [Chapter in Edited/Refereed Book]

Patents

1. Duckworth Roger James, Higgins Colin Anthony, Leedham Graham.  Machine editing of free-hand work.  Application No. 8630455, Submitted Dec 1986, granted Patent Number GB2 199169.  29th June 1988.

Conferences etc

section under revision

98. Ashraf AbdelRaouf, Colin Higgins, Tony Pridmore, Mahmoud Khalil. Arabic corpus enhancement using new lexicon/stemming algorithm the 2nd International Conference on Pattern Recognition Applications and methods. ICPRAM 2013, February 16, 2013

97. Abdelraouf, A., Higgins, C. A., & Khalil, M. (2008, June). A Database for Arabic Printed Character Recognition. In Proceedings of the 5th international conference on Image Analysis and Recognition (pp. 567-578). Springer-Verlag.

96. A. Naim Che Pee, Peter Blanchfield, Colin A Higgins. Teaching Climate Change in Year 8! The European Conference on Games Based Learning (ECGBL 2007 ), Scotland, UK. 25-26 October 2007. [Abstract]

95. N. Omar, C. Higgins, C. Harrison, D.C. Millan. Evaluating Real-time Online Research Data (RORD) and Verbatim Quotient Detection (VQD): Low Inference Tools to Monitor Outcomes of Unconstrained Authentic Internet Research. Proceedings of the Sixth IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT). 2006, pp: 502 - 506. ISBN:0-7695-2632-2 [refereed conference proceedings, 5 pages]

94. Brett Bligh, Colin Higgins. Formative computer based assessment in diagram based domains. Annual Joint Conference Integrating Technology into Computer Science Education, Proceedings of the 11th annual SIGCSE conference on Innovation and technology in computer science. Bologna, Italy Volume 38 , Issue 3, September 2006. pp.98 - 102 ISBN:1-59593-055-8 [refereed conference proceedings]

93. Yang M., Graham Leedham., Higgins C. & Htwe S.M., Critical Technological Issues of Commercializing a Pitman Shorthand Recognition System, Proceedings of the 5 th International Conference on Information, Communications and Signal Processing (ICICS 2005), Bangkok, Thailand, 6-9 December 2005. [refereed conference proceedings]

92. Yang M., Leedham C.G., Higgins C. & Htwe S.M. An On-line Automatic Recognition System for Pitman's Shorthand, Proceedings of the IEEE Region 10 Technical Conference (TENCON05), Melbourne, Australia, 21-24, November 2005. [refereed conference proceedings]

91. Ahmadzadeh, M., Elliman D., and Higgins C. "How Analytical Skills Can Improve Programming Ability?" IRCE, Leeds, UK, July 1-2, 2005. [refereed conference proceedings]

90. Swe Myo Htwe, Colin Higgins & Graham Leedham. Transliteration of online handwritten phonetic Pitman's shorthand with the use of a Bayesian network, 8th International Conference on Document Analysis and Recognition, Seoul, Korea, 29 August - 1 September 2005. [refereed conference proceedings]

89. Swe Myo Htwe, Colin Higgins & Graham Leedham. Post-processing of handwritten Phonetic Pitman's shorthand using a Bayesian network built on geometric attributes, 3rd International Conference on Advances in Pattern Recognition, Bath, UK, 22-25 August 2005. [refereed conference proceedings]

88. Omar, N., Higgins, C., & Harrison, C. (2005, July 5-8). Investigating an Approach for Online Reading Assessment. Paper presented at the 5th. IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies,  ICALT 2005 Nottingham, UK.

87. Ma Yang, Graham Leedham, Colin Higgins and Swe Myo Htwe. On-line recognition of Pitman's shorthand for fast mobile text entry. IEEE International Conference on Information Technology and Applications, Sydney, Australia, 4-7 July 2005. [refereed conference proceedings]

86. Ahmadzadeh, M., Elliman D., and Higgins C. "An Analysis of Patterns of Debugging Among Novice Computer Science Students." ITiCSE '05: Innovation and Technology in Computer Science Education. Lisbon, Portugal. June 27-29, 2005 pp84-88. [abstract, refereed conference proceedings].

85. M. Al-Yahya, C. Higgins, T. Brailsford, and H. Ashman. "Question Master: An Open Model for Reusing Dialogue in Learning Environments." CAL'05 Virtual Learning. 4-6 April 2005, Elsevier [Refereed conference proceedings]

84. Ahmadzadeh, M., Elliman D., and Higgins C. "Debugging Pattern in Novice Students". Psychology of Programming Interest Group (PPIG). Nottingham, UK. December 15-16, 2004. [workshop]

83. Omar, N., Harrison, C., & Higgins, C. Online reading and web navigation: a computer-based low inference model of expert reader behaviour.  The 5th International Conference on Recent Advances in Soft Computing, Nottingham, UK Dec 16-18, 2004. [conference]

82. Omar, N., Harrison, C., & Higgins, C.  Can we assess online reading?   Psychology of Programming Interest Group (PPIG) Workshop, Nottingham, UK, 2004. [workshop]

81. Harrison, C., Omar, N., & Higgins, C.  Intelligent Online Reading Assessment: capturing and evaluating Internet search activity.  Poster presented at the Beyond the Blackboard: Future Direction for Teaching, Robinson College, Cambridge, 3-4 Nov. 2004.  [workshop]

80. Swe Myo Htwe, Colin Higgins, Graham Leedham & Ma Yang, Evaluation of Feature Sets in the Post Processing of Handwritten Pitman’s Shorthand, Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Frontiers in Handwriting Recognition, ISBN 0-7695-2187-8, pp. 359-364, Kokubunji, Tokyo, Japan, 26-29 October 2004. [refereed conference proceedings, 6 pages]

79. Swe Myo Htwe, Colin Higgins, Graham Leedham & Ma Yang, Post Processing of Handwriting Pitman's Shorthand using Unigram and Heuristic Approaches, Published in Lecture Notes in Computer Science: Document Analysis Systems VI, 3163, Springer-Verlag, pp. 332-336, Proceedings of the IAPR workshop on document analysis systems, University of Florence, Italy, 8-10 September 2004. [refereed conference proceedings & book, 4 pages]

78. Chye-Foong Yong and Colin A Higgins, Self-assessing with adaptive exercises, 8th International Computer Aided Assessment Conference, Loughborough, UK, 6-7 July, 2004.  [refereed conference proceedings, 7 pages]

77. Swe Myo Htwe, Colin Higgins, Graham Leedham & Ma Yang, Knowledge based transcription of Pitman’s handwritten shorthand using word frequency and context, Proceedings of the 7th IEEE International Conference on Development and Application Systems, pp. 508-512, Suceava, Romania, 27- 29 May 2004. [refereed conference proceedings, 5 pages]

76. Ma Yang, Graham Leedham, Colin Higgins, & Swe Myo Htwe, Segmentation and recognition of vocalized outlines in Pitman shorthand, Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Pattern Recognition, Vol. I, ISBN 0-7695-2128-2, pp. 441-444, Cambridge, UK, 23-26 August 2004. [refereed conference proceedings, 4 pages]

75. S Al-Ma'adeed, C Higgins and D. Elliman.  Off line Recognition of Handwritten Arabic Words Using Multiple Hidden Markov Models.  Proceedings of AI-2003, the 23rd SGAI International Conference on Innovative Techniques and Applications of Artificial Intelligence, Cambridge, UK. 15-17 December, 2003. ISBN: 1-85233-779-6 Springer-Verlag. [refereed conference proceedings, 5 pages]

74. Hegazy T, Higgins C and Tsintsifas A.  A framework for supporting the computer based assessment community and for the interoperability and data exchange amongst CBA systems.  m-ICTE2003. Second International Conference on Multimedia and Information & Communication Technologies in Education. Badajoz, Spain.  3-6 December, 2003. [refereed conference proceedings, 5 pages]

73. Higgins, Symeonidis, Tsintsifas.  CourseMarker and DATsys, next generation Automated Assessment Systems.  The Use of CAA in ICS Education conference, Brighton, UK 16th July, 2003.  [invited conference paper, 7 pages]

72. Chye Foong Yong and Colin Higgins.  Automatically Creating Personalised Exercises Based on Student Profiles.  ITiCSE 2003, Thessaloniki, Greece 30 June – 2 July, 2003. [refereed conference proceedings, 1 page]

71. Al-Ma’adeed, S, Elliman, D G, Higgins, C A.  Arabic Hand-written Word Recognition.  International Arab Conference on Information Technology (ACIT 2002), Quatar University, Quatar, 16th-19th December, 2002.  [refereed conference proceedings, 4 pages]

70. Colin Higgins, Pavlos Symeonidis and Athanasios Tsintsifas.  Diagram-Based CBA using DATsys and CourseMaster.  International Conference on Computers in Education (ICCE2002), Auckland New Zealand, 3 – 6 December, 2002.  ISBN 07695-1509-6 [refereed conference proceedings, 6 pages]

69. Colin Higgins.  CourseMaster: marking programs and diagrams.  Dealing with Plagiarism in ICS Education.  University of Warwick, 11 - 12 April 2002.  [invited conference proceedings, 5 pages]

68. Somaya Al Ma’adeed, Colin Higgins, and Dave Elliman.  Recognition of Off-Line Handwritten Arabic Words Using a Hidden Marcov Model Approach.  International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR2002), August 11-15, 2002 – Québec, Canada.  [refereed conference proceedings, 4 pages]

67. Somaya Al Ma’adeed, Colin Higgins, and Dave Elliman.  A Data Base for Arabic Handwritten Text Recognition Research.  Eighth International Workshop on Frontiers in Handwriting Recognition (IWFHR 2002), IEEE Computer Society Press, Ontario, Canada, 6-8 August 2002. [refereed conference proceedings, 5 pages]

66. Colin Higgins, Pavlos Symeonidis and Athanasios Tsintsifas.  The Marking System for CourseMaster.  ITiCSE'02, June 24-26, 2002, Aarhus, Denmark. ISBN: 1-58113-499-1 [refereed conference proceedings, 5 pages]

65. S. Al Ma’adeed, C. Higgins, and D. Elliman.  A new preprocessing system for the recognition of off-line handwritten Arabic words.  The 1st IEEE International Symposium on Signal Processing and Information Technology December 28-30, 2001, Cairo, Egypt.  [refereed conference proceedings]

64. Colin Higgins, Jarkko Suhonen, and Erkki Sutinen.  Model of a Semi-Automatic Assessment Tool in Web-Based Learning Environment.  International Conference on Computers in Education (ICCE), Seoul, S. Korea 12th – 15th Nov, 2001.  [refereed conference proceedings]

63. Eric Foxley, Colin Higgins, Tarek Hegazy, Pavlos Symeonidis and Athanasios Tsintsifas.  The CourseMaster CBA System – Improvements over Ceilidh.  Fifth International Computer Assisted Assessment Conference, Loughborough, 2-3 July, 2001, pp 189-202.  ISBN 0-9539572-0-9  [refereed conference proceedings]

62. Eric Foxley, Colin Higgins, Pavlos Symeonidis and Athanasios Tsintsifas.  The CourseMaster Automated Assessment System - a next generation Ceilidh.  Workshop on Computer Assisted Assessment to support the ICS disciplines, University of Warwick, 5th - 6th April 2001.  [invited conference proceedings]

61. Somaya Al-Ma’adeed, D G Elliman and C A Higgins.  Computer Vision Application to Automatically Recognise Handwritten Arabic Characters.  ENAIS'2001, International ICSC Congress on Information Science Innovations, March 17-21, 2001.  American University in Dubai, U.A.E.  [refereed conference proceedings]

60. Higgins C A.  Experiences from Authentic Courses based on the Ceilidh and CourseMaster Systems.  Invited paper, Workshop on Manufacturing Creative eLearning Environments.  Feb 1 – 2, 2001, Lieksa, Johensuu, Finland. [invited paper]

59. Higgins C A.  Creative Aspects in Educational Delivery Applications - the Ceilidh and CourseMaster Systems.  Invited paper(2), Workshop on Manufacturing Creative eLearning Environments.  Feb 1 – 2, 2001, Lieksa, Johensuu, Finland.  [invited paper]

58. Higgins, C. A.  CourseMaster: How to mark 4000 CourseWorks without really trying.  Pedagogy V Technology, University of Wolverhampton, 15 June, 2000.  [invited paper]

57. Foxley, E, Higgins, C A, Tsintsifas, A, Symeonidis, P.  The Ceilidh-CourseMaster System, An Introduction 1999.  4th Java in the Computing Curriculum Conference, South Bank University, 24th January 2000.   [Refereed Conference Proceedings]

56. Eric Foxley, Athanasios Tsintsifas, Colin Higgins, Pavlos Symeonidis. Ceilidh, a System for the Automatic Evaluation of Student Programming Work, CBLIS, University of Twente, Holland, 2-6 July, 1999.  [Refereed Conference Proceedings]

55. Colin A Higgins and Jochan Sauter.  NUSCAL – A Java-based Tool for the Analysis of On-line Cursive Script.  9th conference of the International Graphonomics Society, 28-30 June, 1999, York Hotel, Singapore.  [Refereed Conference Proceedings]

54. Eric Foxley, Colin Higgins, Athanasios Tsintsifas. Security Issues under Ceilidh's WWW Interface, Proc ICCE'98, Vol 1 pp235-240, Beijing, China, 14-17 Oct, 1998.  Springer, ISBN: 7-04-007336-6 [Refereed Conference Proceedings]

53. F Z Mansouri, C A Higgins, C A Gibbon. PRAM: Prolog Automatic Marker, 6th Annual Conference on the Teaching of Computing, 3rd Annual Conference on Integrating Technology into Computer Science Education ITiCSE '98, Dublin, Ireland, 18th-21 August 1998.  [Refereed Conference Proceedings]

52. Eric Foxley, Colin Higgins, Athanasios Tsintsifas. The Ceilidh System: A general overview June 1998, Second Annual Computer Assisted Assessment Conf, Loughborough, UK, 17-18 June 1998.  ISBN: 0-9533210-1-0 [Refereed Conference Proceedings]

51. Elliman D.G. and Higgins C. A. Back to the Drawing Board. Conference on Engineering Intelligent Systems. University of Laguna, Tenerife, Spain, February 1998.  [Refereed Conference Proceedings]

50. M J Cripps, D G Elliman, C A Higgins, G Hutton. The Designer's Apprentice - A blackboard Approach.  Conference of the Australasian Cognitive Science Society, New South Wales, Australia, September 1997.  [Refereed Conference Proceedings]

49. Gibbon, C A; Higgins, C A; ‘An Informal Approach to Software Design Evaluation’, INSPIRE’97, BCS, SIGS, IVF, Gothenburg, Sweden, pp. 18-20, August 1997.  [Refereed Conference Proceedings]

48. G Hutton, M Cripps, D G Elliman, C A Higgins. An On-line Corner Detection Method for the Designer's Apprentice. Eighth Biennial Conference of the International Graphonomics Society, Genova, Italy, August 1997, pp. 79-80, ISBN: 90-803739-1-5  [Refereed Conference Proceedings]

47. S P L Baros, C A Higgins, M Knight. Xcstk - an X11 Based Viewing Tool for On-line Cursive Script.  Eighth Biennial Conference of the International Graphonomics Society, Genova, Italy, August 1997, pp115-116, 3739-1-5  [Refereed Conference Proceedings]

46. M Cripps, D G Elliman, C A Higgins, G Hutton. The Designer's Apprentice - An Innovative Electronic Blackboard. Eighth Biennial Conference of the International Graphonomics Society, Genova, Italy, August 1997, pp. 77-78, ISBN: 90-803739-1-5  [Refereed Conference Proceedings]

45. G Hutton, M Cripps, D G Elliman, C A Higgins. Using Temporal Information to Improve the Interpretation of Sketched Engineering Drawings in the Designer’s Apprentice. GREC ’97, INRIA, Nancy, France, 22-23 August 1997.  Published in proceedings of this conference, and in book form by Springer Press.  [Refereed Conference Proceedings]

44. G Hutton, M Cripps, D G Elliman, C A Higgins. A Strategy for the On-line Interpretation of Sketched Engineering Drawings. 4th International Conference on Document Analysis and Recognition, ICDAR ’97, 18-20 August, Ulm, Germany, Published by IEEE Computer Society Press, ISBN 0-8186-7898-4, pp.771-775.  [Refereed Conference Proceedings]

43. Gibbon, Cleveland A. and Higgins, Colin A. The Case for Design Heuristics in OO Curricula. Educators' Symposium: OOPSLA'97, Atlanta, USA, October 1997. [Refereed Conference Proceedings]

42. E Foxley, C A Higgins, E K Burke, C A Gibbon, A M Zin. The Ceilidh System: An Overview and some experiences of use.  Asian Technology Conference in Mathematics, ATCM97, Penang, Malaysia, June 19-22, 1997.  Pages 430-441 ISBN 983-9700-46-4.  [Refereed Conference Proceedings]

41. C. A. Higgins and P. E. Bramall. A cursive script recognition system based on a combination of paradigms.  8th conference of the International Graphonomics Society, 1996.  [Refereed Conference Proceedings]

40. Gibbon, Cleveland A. and Higgins, C.A. Towards a Learner-Centred Approach to Testing Object-Oriented Designs. Proceedings of the Asian-Pacific Software Engineering Conference, Seoul, South Korea, 4-7 December, 1996 and OOPSLA ’96 doctoral symposium, p 110-117, IEEE Computer Society Press, ISBN 0-8186-7638-8.  [Refereed Conference Proceedings]

39. Eric Foxley, Colin Higgins and Edmund Burke. The Ceilidh System: A General Overview 1996. Monitor, the Newsletter of the CTI Centre for Computing, No. 7, December 1996. ISSN 0961-3757.  [Refereed Conference Proceedings]

38. Gibbon, Cleveland A., Lovegrove, Gillian L. and Higgins, Colin A. Tools, Heuristics and Techniques to Assist OO Education. Educators' Symposium: OOPSLA'96, San Jose, California, October 1996.  [Refereed Conference Proceedings]

37. Foxley, E., Higgins, C. A., Burke, E.K., Gibbon, C.A. and Zin, A.M.  The Ceilidh System: An Overview and Some Experiences of Use.  Asian Technology Conference in Mathematics, ATCM97, Penang, Malaysia, June 1997.  [Refereed Conference Proceedings]

36. C. A. Higgins and P. E. Bramall. An on-line cursive script recognition system. Seventh Biennial Conference of the International Graphonomics Society, London, Ontario, August 6-10, 1995.  [Refereed Conference Proceedings]

35. S D Benford, E K Burke, E Foxley and C A Higgins, Tutorial Developments and Marking in Ceilidh, Proceedings of the International Conference of Computer Based Learning in Science 1995 (CBLIS 95), Opava, Czech Republic, 30 June to 4 July 1995, pages 147-161.  [Refereed Conference Proceedings]

34. P. E. Bramall and C. A. Higgins. A Cursive Script Recognition System Based on Human Reading Models.  Machine Vision and Applications. 1995 8:224-231.    [Refereed Conference Proceedings]

33. Steve Benford, Edmund Burke, Eric Foxley, Colin Higgins. The Ceilidh System for the Automatic Grading of Students on Programming Courses. Proceedings of the 33rd ACM Southeast Conference, Clemson University, South Carolina, pages 176-182, 17th-19th March 1995.  [Refereed Conference Proceedings]

32. P. E. Bramall and C. A. Higgins. A Combination of AI Techniques for Cursive Script Recognition. Fourth International Workshop on Frontiers of Handwriting Recognition. Taipei, Taiwan, Dec 1994.  [Refereed Conference Proceedings]

31. S D Benford, E K Burke, E Foxley, C A Higgins. Ceilidh: A Management System for the Administration and Assessment of Computer Programming Courses. Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer-Assisted Education and Training in Developing Countries. Johannesburg, South Africa, 17-21 October 1994.  [Refereed Conference Proceedings]

30. S D Benford, E K Burke, E Foxley. A M Zin, C A Higgins. Software Quality Assessment in Ceilidh, The Proceedings of the 2nd East-West Conference on Computer Technologies in Education. Crimea, Ukraine, 19-23 Sept 1994.  [Refereed Conference Proceedings]

29. C. A. Higgins and P. E. Bramall. Cursive script recognition based on a combination of AI techniques.  European Workshop on Handwriting Analysis and Recognition: A European Perspective. IEE workshop, Brussels, July 1994.    [Refereed Conference Proceedings]

28. P. E. Bramall and C. A. Higgins. A handwriting recognition system based on multiple AI techniques. Pattern recognition in Practice. Vlieland, The Netherlands, June 1994.  [Refereed Conference Proceedings]

27. S. D. Benford, E. K. Burke, E. Foxley, C. A. Higgins. Ceilidh: A Courseware System for the Assessment and Administration of Computer Programming Courses in Higher Education. Proceedings of the Interdisciplinary Workshop on Complex Learning in Computer Environments. University of Joensuu, Finland, May 16th-19th 1994, pages 143-148. Also in an electronic WWW hypertext book (refereed again).  [Refereed Conference Proceedings, on-line book]

26. S D Benford, E K Burke, E Foxley, A M Zin, C A Higgins. Software Quality Assessment in Ceilidh, invited paper for The CTI Conference on Current Developments to Support the Teaching of Computing.  University of Salford, 22nd April 1994.  [Invited Conference Proceedings]

25. Steve Benford, Edmund Burke, Eric Foxley, Abdullah Modh Zin, and Colin Higgins. A Course Administration System for Remote Access. Proceedings of the Association for Education and Training Technology Conference, Edinburgh, April 1994.  [Refereed Conference Proceedings]

24. C. A. Higgins and P. E. Bramall. A system for cursive handwriting recognition based on human reading models. IEE Colloquium on Handwriting and pen-based input. Invited paper, London, March 11th, 1994.  [Invited Workshop Paper]

23. C. A. Higgins and P. E. Bramall. Pen-based computers and cursive script Recognition. Invited Paper, InfoScience '93. Seoul, Korea, pp 113-120, Oct 1993.  [Invited Conference Proceedings]

22. C. A. Higgins and P. E. Bramall. On-line handwriting recognition based on the human reading process.  Sixth International Conference on Handwriting and Drawing. Paris, France, July 1993.  [Refereed Conference Proceedings]

21. P. E. Bramall and C. A. Higgins. A blackboard approach to on-line cursive handwriting recognition for pen-based computing. Third International Workshop on Frontiers of Handwriting Recognition. Buffalo, NY, USA, May, 1993.  [Refereed Conference Proceedings]

20. C. A. Higgins and D. M. Ford. On-Line Recognition of Connected Handwriting by Segmentation and Template Matching. Eleventh International Conference on Pattern Recognition. The Hague, The Netherlands, Aug 1992.  [Refereed Conference Proceedings]

19. M. I. Heard, C. A. Higgins and P. M. Mather. GERES: a prototype expert system for the geometric rectification of remotely-sensed images. Proc. XVII Int. Soc. for Photogrammetry and Remote-Sensing.  Washington DC, USA, 1992.  [Refereed Conference Proceedings]

18. C. A. Higgins and D. M. Ford. A Statistical Template Matching Method for Cursive Script Recognition.  Fifth Handwriting Conference of the International Graphonomics Society. Tempe, Arizona, USA, Oct 1991.  [Refereed Conference Proceedings]

17. C. A. Higgins and D. M. Ford. A New Segmentation Method for Cursive Script Recognition. Second International Workshop on Frontiers of Handwriting Recognition. Bonas, France, Sept, 1991.  [Refereed Conference Proceedings]

16. D. M. Ford and C. A. Higgins. Stylus Driven Interfaces - The Electronic Paper Concept. First International Conference on Document Analysis and Recognition. Saint-Malo, France, Sept, 1991.  [Refereed Conference Proceedings]

15. C. A. Higgins and D. M. Ford. Stylus Driven Interfaces - An evaluation of Electronic Paper. For the Central Computing and Telecommunications Agency, Advanced Technology Division. Consultancy report, Feb 1991.  [Government Report]

14. C. A. Higgins. The Future of Electronic Paper. IEE Seminar. Feb 1991.  [Invited Workshop Paper]

13. C. A. Higgins. Stylus Driven Interfaces and Handwriting Recognition. Central Computing and Telecommunications Agency CT1 Professional Development Seminar. Dec 1990.  [Invited Government Seminar]

12. R. J. Duckworth and C. A. Higgins. An interactive I/O interface for the Electronic Paper Project. Electronic Imaging '89. Boston, Massachusetts, USA, 1989.  [Refereed Conference Proceedings]

11. M. I. Heard, C. A. Higgins and P. Mather.  Prototype expert system for the geometric correction of remotely-sensed images.  The Association for Geographic Information 1st National Conference.  Birmingham, United Kingdom, 1989.  [Refereed Conference Proceedings]

10. D. M. Ford and C. A. Higgins. A fast dictionary search technique. 4th International Graphonomics Society Conference on Development of Graphic Skills. Trondheim, Norway, 1989.  [Refereed Conference Proceedings]

9. C. A. Higgins and R. J. Duckworth. The PAD (Pen and Display) – a demonstrator for the Electronic Paper Project. 4th International Graphonomics Society Conference on Development of Graphic Skills. Trondheim, Norway, 1989.  [Refereed Conference Proceedings]

8. C. A. Higgins and D. M. Ford. A comparison of n-grams and a tree structure for letter graph reduction.  4th International Graphonomics Society Conference on Development of Graphic Skills. Trondheim, Norway, 1989.  [Refereed Conference Proceedings]

7. C. A. Higgins. Computers without keyboards. IBM open day presentation for Central Computing and Telecommunications Agency. Dec 1988.  [Invited Government Seminar]

6. R. J. Duckworth and C. A. Higgins.  An Interactive I/O Interface for the Electronic Paper Project.  Central Computer and Communication Agency, UK Government, Technical Reports, 1988. [Government Report Series]

5. R. Whitrow and C. A. Higgins. The application of n-grams for script recognition. Proceedings of the 3rd Symposium on Handwriting and Computer Applications. Montreal, Canada, 1987.  [Refereed Conference Proceedings]

4. D. M. Ford, C. A. Higgins and E. R. Brocklehurst. The Electronic Paper Project. Proceedings of the 3rd Symposium on Handwriting and Computer Applications. Montreal, Canada, 1987.  [Refereed Conference Proceedings]

3. C. A. Higgins and R. J. Duckworth. A Demonstrator for the Electronic Paper Project "The Slate". For the Central Computing and Telecommunications Agency, Advanced Technology Division. Consultancy report, Sept 1986.  [Government Report]

2. C. A. Higgins. Automatic recognition of handwritten script. PhD Thesis, CNAA, 1985.  [PhD Thesis]

1. C. A. Higgins and R. Whitrow. On-line cursive script recognition. 1st IFIP Conference on 'Human-Computer Interaction'. London, United Kingdom, 1984.  [Refereed Conference Proceedings]

0. C. A. Higgins. A Microprocessor Handwritten Character Recogniser. MSc Thesis, University of Manchester, Oct 1981.

Submitted and Under Review, or in Preparation

Swe Myo Htwe, Colin Higgins, Graham Leedham & Ma Yang, Linguistic processing of phonetic primitives in on-line handwritten Pitman’s shorthand.

Under Construction.