Literature Lectures Lecture Links
A set of lecture notes [AN07] (PDF), originally developed by Dr. Thorsten Altenkirch and then updated and adapted, support the lectures, along with electronic lecture slides [ELS15] for some of the lectures.
Please note that you should not expect these notes to be a complete or even self-contained record of all that is said and discussed during the lectures. Lecture attendance is compulsory.
The book Introduction to Automata Theory, Languages, and Computation, 2nd edition [HMU01] by John E. Hopcroft, Rajeev Motwani, & Jeffrey D. Ullman is the main reference for the course. Note that this book is quite different from the classic 1979 first edition (see below). Consult the book's web pages for additional supporting material, including additional exercises with automated on-line correction, and errata. The library has got some copies of the book.
There is now also a third edition of this book. This is fine too. However, the page references below are for the second edition.
The 1979 first edition of Introduction to Automata Theory, Languages, and Computation [HU79] by John E. Hopcroft & Jeffrey D. Ullman is very thorough and a classic in the field. However, it is considerably harder than the second edition, being aimed more at PhD students or advanced undergraduates. It is now also somewhat difficult to get hold of.
The book An Introduction to Formal Languages and Automata [Lin06] by Peter Linz can be used as an alternative or complement to [HMU01]. The picture shows the fourth edition. Later editions should work too. In fact, as the lectures cover standard material, but without following any specific book very closely, there are a range of possible text books for the student who wish to delve deeper into the subject than what the lectures notes [AN07] do.
One important application area for much of the material covered in the course is compilers. If you are curious, you might want to have a look at the material for the second-year module G52CMP Compilers, or you might want to browse through a book on the topic, such as the classic Compilers: Principles, Techniques, and Tools [ASU86] ("The Dragon book") by Aho, Sethi, & Ullman.
The lecture overview below is at present tentative. For example, topics may change a bit, especially towards the end, or the schedule might slip.
|1||30 Jan||Administrative Details and Introduction||[ELS15, Le 1; AN07, pp. 1--6; HMU01, ch. 1]|
|2||30 Jan||Deterministic Finite Automata (DFA)||[AN07, pp. 7--8; HMU01, pp. 37--54]|
|3||6 Feb||Nondeterministic Finite Automata (NFA)||[ELS15, AN07, pp. 9--11; HMU01, pp. 55--59]|
|4||6 Feb||Equivalence between NFA and DFA||[ELS15, AN07, pp. 11--13; HMU01, pp. 60--72]|
|5||13 Feb||Regular Expressions||[AN07, pp. 13--17; HMU01, pp. 83--89, 108--113]|
|6||13 Feb||Equivalence between Regular Expressions and Finite Automata||[ELS15, Le 6; AN07, pp. 17--25; HMU01, pp. 101--105]|
|7||20 Feb||Minimization of Finite Automata||[AN07, pp. 25--29; HMU01, pp. 154--164]|
|8||20 Feb||Proving Languages not to be Regular||[AN07, pp. 29--31; HMU01, pp. 126--131]|
|9||27 Feb||Introduction to Context-Free Grammars (CFG)||[AN07, pp. 21--33; HMU01, pp. 169--177, 191--205]|
|10||27 Feb||The Language of a CFG||[AN07, pp. 33--35; HMU01, pp. 177--181]|
|11||6 Mar||Derivation Trees and Ambiguity||[AN07, pp. 35--37; HMU01, pp. 181--191, 205--207, 175-177, 211--214]|
|12||6 Mar||Disambiguating Context-Free Grammars||[AN07, pp. 35--37; HMU01, pp. 207--211]|
|13||13 Mar||Pushdown Automata (PDA)||[AN07, pp. 37--40; HMU01, ch. 6]|
|14||13 Mar||The Language of a PDA||[AN07, pp. 40--41; HMU01, ch. 6]||15||20 Mar||Recursive-Descent Parsing: Introduction||[ELS15, Le 15; AN07, pp. 41--43; HMU01, ch. 6. pp. 192--195]|
|16||20 Mar||Recursive-Descent Parsing: Elimination of Left Recursion||[ELS15, Le 16; AN07 pp. 44--49]|
|17||27 Mar||Recursive-Descent Parsing: Predictive Parsing||[ELS15, Le 17; AN07 pp. 44--49]|
|18||27 Mar||Catch up/Discussion (TBD)|
|19||1 May||Turing Machines and Decidability||[AN07, pp. 49--56; HMU01, ch. 8 & 9]|
|20||1 May||Turing Machines and Decidability (cont.)||[AN07, pp. 49--56; HMU01, ch. 8 & 9]|
|21||8 May||NO LECTURE|
|22||8 May||NO LECTURE|
The coursework consists of four problem sets. The average of the best three counts for 25 % of the overall mark for the module. The issue and submission dates are as follows:
|Problem Set#||Issue Date||Submission Date|
|1||2 Feb||6 Feb|
|2||16 Feb||20 Feb|
|3||2 Mar||6 Mar|
|4||16 Mar||20 Mar|
Problem sets below. Solutions will be added shortly after the deadlines.
A Moodle Forum for G52MAL has been set up.
The forum is intended for asking questions about and discussing aspects of G52MAL, like the coursework. It will be monitored by the G52MAL team, and we'll endeavour to answer any outstanding questions reasonably quickly. However, any one is free to contribute to the discussions and help with answering questions. Indeed, in the spirit of an on-line forum, you are encouraged to do so!
Of course, we do ask that you do not post the exact solutions to the coursework! The point of the coursework is that you should ultimately solve the problems yourselves so that you know what you have understood and what you need to work more on or ask about.
In the case of a resit examination:
The style of the exam will be similar to the ones given over the past few years, such as the ones below. However, note that there is not going to be any choice regarding which questions to answer: all questions will be compulsory. (This is unlike what was the case in some of the older exams below.)
Model solutions for some past exams: